Ahmedabad ( Aasharvally )


Ahmedabad ( Aasharvally )

By LocAskBlog 1 month ago Uncategorized

Cities appear and disappear only to reappear in the tableaux of Indian civilization. The historic city of Ahmedabad was founded in the surge of Islamic conquests that had swept through India. It was established in 1411 AD by a noble, Ahmed Shah, who had rebelled against his overlords in Delhi. The new rulers of Gujarat, keen on stablishing their superiority in the material realm, had undertaken a frenzied program of building activities in their new capital of Ahmedabad. Their model was the impressive Hindu architecture of the previous centuries which they wanted to outshine. The result, after one and a half centuries, was the ‘Sultanate Architecture’ of Ahmedabad, considered a high point of world architectural heritage. This architecture along with the Jain, Swaminarayan and Hindu temples of the city is a veritable safari of monumental architecture which attracts lovers of beauty from across the world to the city.


The architecture and the design of the new town of Ahmedabad (Latt. 23* 00, Long. 72* 35’), a walled town situated on the river Sabarmati, was a continuation of the Hindu building traditions by other means. These ‘other means’ were the new stylistic elements brought in by the new rulers. The city lies close to an older Solanki trading centre, on the 371 km long river Sabarmati and is 173 feet above the sea level. That it was the seat of a splendorous court is testified by a French traveler, Taverniere, who had visited the town in the eighteenth century describing it as “the headquarters of manufacturing, the greatest city in India, nothing inferior to Venice for rich silks and gold stuffs curiously wrought with birds and flowers.”

A treaty with the then rulers of western India, the Poona Peshwas, brought Ahmedabad under the British rule in 1817. The British were keen on annexing Ahmedabad because of “the commanding influence which the sovereignty over the city of Ahmedabad confers on its possessor in the estimation of the country at large.” At the time of the British arrival, the medieval economy of Ahmedabad had hung on three threads: gold, silk, and cotton. The British rule of law helped flowering the strength of the Ahmedabad mahajans (trade guilds), and aided by the opium trade to China, by 1839 the town was “in a most flourishing condition and progressing rapidly.”

Modern textile technology further oiled the Gujarati virtues in ‘reinventing’ Ahmedabad. Its booming business in textiles had given Ahmedabad the status of ‘Manchester of India’ by the First World War.The success of modern textile industry in Ahmedabad is a puzzle for the business historian as the town was considered unsuitable for the industry.Some of these mills survived as late as 1989. The flourishing of textile industry in Ahmedabad may be viewed as the triumph of Gujarati virtues of pragmatism, innovation and creative collaboration. It was for this town that Mahatma Gandhi had felt a predilection after his return from South Africa in 1917, staying on in the town for thirteen years and directing the historically unheard of non-violent movement against colonial power in favour of self-determination for the Indian people.

Their successes in textiles turned the 19th century Ahmedabad mahajans in to fine institution- builders; they played important role in creating institutions like PRL, IIM, NID, ATIRA and CEPT during the middle of the 20th century. The buildings of these institutions had attracted modern masters of world architecture like Louis Kahn and Le Corbusier to the city in the 1950s .Pharmaceuticals, Construction and Textiles are the main industries of Ahmedabad of today. The town contributes 14% of the total investments in all stock exchanges of India. The Municipal Corporation was formed in 1950 (present budget: 120 million $ US, area 191 sq km, population: 4.5 millions). Sardar Patel, a great comrade of Mahatma Gandhi and the architect of modern India, was once a mayor of Ahmedabad. Sardar’s vision of Indian cities as heavens for Indian urban dwellers is the lodestar that directs the movement of this great city towards its future.

Profile: Ahmedabad City

Co-ordinates:23.03° N 72.58° EArea:466 Sq.km. (year 2006)Population:55,77,940 (year 2011 Census)Density:11,948 /sq.kmLiteracy Rate:89.60 %Average Annual Rainfall:782 mmPopularly known as:AmdavadSTD Code:079

The city of Ahmedabad, now the seventh largest metropolis in India and the largest in the state of Gujarat, was founded in 1411 AD as a walled city on the eastern bank of the river Sabarmati. Historically Ahmedabad has been one of the most important centers of trade and commerce in western India. It is also a major industrial and financial city contributing about 14% of the total investments in all stock exchanges in India and 60% of the total productivity of the state. It is the home of several scientific and educational institutions of national, regional and global importance. The city has a great architectural tradition reflected in many exquisite monuments, temples and modern buildings.

Ahmedabad's Strengths

  • Ahmedabad GDP pegged at 64 billion USD in 2012.
  • 3rd fastest growing city as per the Forbes magazine 2010.
  • A Times of India survey ranks Ahmedabad City as India's Best City live-in in terms of infrastructure.
  • Major base of trade, commerce and industry and engine of industrial and financial growth of the state.
  • Ahmedabad will be the First Indian City to receive UNESCO's World Heritage City Status- Tentative Application accepted by UNESCO for the same.
  • Quality Water, Sanitation, and Sewerage Services
  • Quality Public Transport System
  • Financially well managed City Government
  • Inclusive city that accommodates the urban poor with sensitivity.
  • Ecologically friendly & Energy efficient
  • Compact city with short travelling distances.
  • Capitalizing on strong economic drivers to create growth and jobs.

The History of Ahmedabad begins in the eleventh century with King Karandev - 1, the Solanki Ruler. He waged a war against the Bhil King Ashapall or Ashaval, and after his victory established a city called Karnavati on the banks of the Sabarmati. The Solanki rule lasted until the thirteenth century, when Gujarat came under the control of the Vaghela dynasty of Dwarka. Gujarat was conquered by the Sultanate of Delhi at the end of the thirteenth century.

Ahmedabad was built in an open and spacious plain in the immediate vicinity of Ashaval to the east of Sabarmati. It then comprised of a smaller area now known as the Bhadra Fort or the citadel of Bhadra. In 1487, Mahmud Begada, the grandson of Ahmed Shah, fortified the city with an outer wall 10 km (6 miles) in circumference and consisting of twelve gates, 189 bastions and over 6,000 battlements. The City was planned according to the ancient Indo-Aryan tradition of a royal capital with main roads, thoroughfares and subsidiary roads.

Under the fostering care of the sultans of Gujarat, the city of Ahmedabad went on expanding in every direction by the addition of new localities and suburbs on both the sides of river, and gradually developed into a well built city, with well-laid-out residential and marketing areas and beautified by palaces, mansions, mausoleums and mosques of reservoirs (lakes) and gardens erected by the noblemen of the sultans and wealthy merchants of the capital.

The city enjoyed the position of royal capital for a period of about 162 years: 1411-1573 A.D. till the independent Sultanate of Gujarat came to an end under the reign of Murzaffar-III. Conditions of the province were chaotic during the reign of Sultan Muzaffar III. Akbar, the great Mughul Emperor, conquered the province in 1573. Though Ahmedabad lost its importance as the capital of Gujarat during the Moghul reign, it retained its importance as one of the thriving centers of trade in the country and chief city of Gujarat.

The Mughal rulers who followed Aurangzeb were weak and the Mughul Viceroys (Subas) were busy fighting amongst themselves and with the Marathas. This resulted in disorder in the country, and from 1737 to 1753, there was a joint rule of the Mughal Viceroy and the Peshwa over Ahmedabad. In 1753 the combined armies of Raghunath Rao and Damaji Gaeakwad overtook the citadel and brought an end of Mughal rule at Ahmedabad.

During the Maratha regime, Ahmedabad was for all intents and purposes divided into two halves, one into the hands of Peshwas and the other into the hands of Gaekwads, the jurisdiction exercised by the Peshwa being greater.The condition of Ahmedabad, during the 64-year-long Maratha rule went from bad to worse owing to the constant struggle between the Peshwas and the Gaekwads and the retrograde and oppressive policy pursued during this period. During this period of decline and insecurity that characterized 64 years of Maratha rule, suburbs were deserted, places and mansions were in ruinous state, roads in hopeless state of disrepair, and the fortwall that enclosed the city had fallen off at many places.

It was in 1818, when the British East India Company took over the city as a part of the conquest of India that the city ushered into the era of orderly development and progress. A military cantonment was established in 1824. A Municipal Committee was formed in 1834 and regular Municipal administration introduced in 1858. In 1864, a railway link between Ahmedabad and Mumbai (then Bombay) was established by the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway (BB&CI), making Ahmedabad an important junction in the traffic and trade between northern and southern India. Large number of people migrated from rural areas to work in textile mills, establishing a robust industry. Thus, in view of such welfare activities and amenities provided in the public interest, the spirit of Ahmedabad, which was lying dormant in the preceding century, was now awakened and expressed itself in all walks of life.

After a lapse of another century, destiny chose Ahmedabad to play an outstanding role in the country's struggle for freedom. The Indian independence movement developed strong roots in the city when, in 1915, Mahatma Gandhi established two ashrams, the Kochrab Ashram near Paldi in 1915 and the Satyagraha Ashram on the banks of the Sabarmati in 1917 that would become centers of intense nationalist activities. Ahmedabad became the capital of the new state of Gujarat after the bifurcation of the State of Bombay on 1 May 1960.

Today Ahmedabad is a unique city, for it blends harmoniously an ancient heritage with a vibrant present. What is remarkable about Ahmedabad is the harmony between art and industry, between a reverence to the past and a vision for the future.

list of year

1030 'Aasharvally' is mentioned in the book 'Qitab-UL-Hind' by Alberuni 1036 Buddh Sagar Suri wrote "Nirvan Lilavati" Katha is Aashavalli 1074 Karnadeva won Aashavalli and established Karnavati 1094 1143 Shantuvihar and Udayvihar are constructed 1261 Samantsing Dev donated in the Era of Vishaldev in Karnavati 1284 The group of Mandap Durg's Zanzan visited Karnavati 1297 Alla Uddin Khalji won Gujarat 1299 Alla Uddin Khalji's Army destroyed Domes and Temples of Aashavalli 1411 Ahmedshah laid the foundation of Ahmedabad, Manek Bhuraj, Ganeshbari, Bhadra Fort, Muhurt Pole and Jumma Masjid 1413 Construction of Bhadra fort completed 1423 Construction of Jumma Masjid completed 1441 Death of Sheikh Ahmed Khatu and construction of the historical Sarkhej Roja begun. 1451 Houj-E-Kutub or Kankaria Lake constructed 1453 Dariakhan Tomb & Dome constructed. 1454 Construction of Shaking Minarets near Gomtipur 1465 Birth of Jain poet Lavanyasamaya 1475 Death of Shah Alam Saheb and beginning of his Roja 1485 Step-well (Vav) of Dada Hari constructed. 1486 Construction of City walls by Mehmud Begda. 1498 Step-well (Vav) Adalaj with exquisite stone carving. 1499 Construction of Dada Hari Stepwell 1514 Arrival of aish traveler Barbosa, Construction of Rani Sipri Masjid. 1535 Humayu captured Ahmedabad and ruled for nine months. Bahadurshah recaptured. 1555 Arrival of Arabian historian Udadbir. 1572 Sidi Saiyad masjid with the world famous carved stone tree constructed. 1572 Akabar captured the city. End of the Sultanate. 1586 Meeting of Sant Dadu and Akbar, Akbar recaptured the city from Muzaffarshah. 1614 Arrival of the first representative of East India Company. 1618 Arrival of Jehangir, letters written to the British King James on 20-02-18 and 08-08-18, Political relations appointed Suba of Gujarat. 1621 Shah-e-Jehan constructed Shahibag Palace (Present Commissioner's Bungalow) and the Shahi Garden. 1631 Famine known as 'Satyashiyo Dukal' 1633 Kinkhab Shamiana presented to Badshah Shah-e-Jehan. 1636 Bhadra palace constructed by Suba Azamkhan. 1638 Arrival of Mendelslo. First Communal riot. Shah-e-Jehan built temple of Chintamani Parshvanath at Saraspur which was demolished by Muslim rioters. 1644 Aurangzeb became Suba of Ahmedabad. He broke Chintamani Jain temple and riots broke down in the city. 1658 Aurangzeb ascended the throne at Delhi. 1664 Revenue concessions to Europeans, Arrival of Tavernier. 1672 Arrival of English Ambassador Sir Thomas Roe. 1681 Imposition of Jajiavero on non-Muslims. Riots due to famine in the city. 1683 City flooded up to Teen Darwaja due to flood 1708 Invasion by Balaji Vishwanath, Ahmedabad looted, Truce at a price of Rs. 1,20,000/- 1715 Hindu-Muslim riot. 1715 Forward business stopped. 1725-26 Invasion by Marathas, persuaded to go back by hush money. 1731 Arrival of Bajirao Peshwa. 1732 City suffered from famine. Many people died due to plague. 1733 Library of Rasulabad looted. 1738 Treaty between Suba of Ahmedabad Aminkhan and Damaji Gaikwad, city came under joint jurisdiction. Construction of Gaikwad Haveli. 1744 Death of Gujarati Poet Shamal Bhatt. 1748 Writing of 'Mirate Ahmedi' started. 1753 Ahmedabad came under Maratha rule. 1757 Division of Ahmedabad between Gaikwad and Peshwa. 1758 Maratha Currency. 1780 General Godard took over the city and handed it over to Fatehsinh Gaikwad. 1781 Arrival of James Forbes. 1804 Arrival of Swami Sahjanandji. 1808 Arrival of Gaikwad, A law for inheritance of property was enforced which can still be seen on Three Gates on a stone. 1818 Mr.Dunlop, British Collector of Kaira took over the city and thus came the end of Maratha rule, Union Jack hoisted on Bhadra. 1819 Earthquake; Speculation in opium. 1820 First import of foreign cloth. 1821 Earthquake for 30 seconds. 1824 First survey of the city. 1827 Establishment of first Gujarati School. 1832 Repairs to city walls by citizens' committee, first seeds of local self-Government. 1834 Beginning of city committee for municipal work. 1846 Starting of First English School. 1847 Construction of First Water Tank by city committee and municipal work started. 1848 Gujarat Vernacular Society founded by Alexander Kinlock Forbes and Kavi Dalpatram Dahyabhai. Construction of Hatheesing Temple. 1849 Clock was put up on the Bhadra Fort Tower. First Gujarati Weekly "Ahmedabad Vartman" was started. 1850 Construction of Swami Narayan Temple in Dariyapur. 1851 Establishment of Maganbhai Karamchand Girls School. 1857 Establishment of Gujarat Training College. Ahmedabad Municipality came into existence on 19th January. 1858 Opening of first Library Himabhai Institute. 1861 First Textile Mill started by late Mr. Ranchhodlal chhotalal, the pioneer of Mill Industry. 1863 Construction of Railway Station. 1864 Railway between Ahmedabad and Bombay. Construction Prem Darwaja. 1866 Municipality has passed resolution to give Rs. 150 as Honorarium to Corporators. 1868 Heavy Floods. Construction of Panchkuva Gate. 1870 Opening of Ellis bridge. 1872 Construction of first city road - Gandhi Road. 1873 Ahmedabad Municipality. Recognized by statute and named as City Municipality. 1875 Railway bridge and Ellis bridge were damaged by heavy floods. 1877 Fires in Sarangpur, Zaveri Vad and Maganbhai's Haveli. 1881 B.J.Medical College started near Gheekanta. 1882 Primary Education came under Municipal Administration. 1887 Gujarat College started in Sheth Ambalal Sarabhai's building at Mirzapur Road. Construction of first well by Municipality. 1888 Establishment of Gujarat Club, Calico Mills was started by Sheth Karamchand Premchand. 1890 First underground drainage was laid in Khadia; The Czar of Russia came to Ahmedabad. 1897 Opening ceremony of Gujarat College by Lord Sandhurst. Telephone service was started. 1898 Death of Sheth Ranchhodlal Chhotalal. 1931 Vadilal Sarabhai General Hospital Started. 1934 Centenary of Ahmedabad Municipality. 1936 Ahmedabad Education Society founded. 1938 Opening of M.J. Library. 1939 Opening of Sardar Bridge. Income Tax imposed. 1940 Opening of Gandhi Bridge and Infections Disease Hospital. 1941 Communal riot. 1942 'Quit India' movement. Ahmedabad Municipality superseded. Historic Textile strike. 1943 Introduction of rationing. 1944 Cloth Control. 1946 Second Communal riot. Death of Vasantrav and Rajabali in riots. Municipality reinstated. 1947 Bus Transport Service under Municipal control, Independence day celebrated. Tricolor Flag on Bhadra fort after 130 years. 1948 Immersion of Mahatmaji's ashes in Sabarmati, Preparations for Electric Grid Scheme and expansion of Power House, Famine conditions in Ahmedabad Dist. Gujarat University Commission. 1949 Rigid cloth control, Textile crisis, Gujarat University Bill passed, Bombay Municipal Corporation Act, Ahmedabad Station of All India Radio started, Gujarat Chamber of Commerce established. 1950 Municipality rose to corporation status on 1-7-1950, First Mayor Sheth Chinubhai Chimanlal. Gujarat University started functioning. 1951 L. D. Engineering College started, North Gujarat Electric Grid Scheme Commissioned. 1952 First general elections under the new Constitution giving adult franchise, First elections to Corporation. 1954 Atira Laboratory building opened by Pundit Nehru. 1955 New Civil Hospital building opened, Milk scheme in Ahmedabad, Drainage in Ellis bridge area. 1956 First Girls College (B.D.Arts College) Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation Museum opened, Foundation ceremony of new Nehru Bridge, Stages, Reorganization Bill and Maha Gujarat Movement, Ahmedabad as H.Q. of Ahmedabad Division comprising 8 Districts of Gujarat, Sardar Patel Memorial opened, First Swimming Pool opened. 1957 Second General Elections and second Corporation election. Corporation area extended, New buildings of All India Radio, Divisional Officer's status raised to Divisional Commissioner with wide powers, Centenary of Himabhai Institute, New Lal Darwaja Garden laid. 1960 Constitution of separate Gujarat State on 1st May and Ahmedabad become capital of new state. 1961 Opening of Indian Institute of Management. 1962 Opening of Nehru Bridge 1963 Opening of Nagri Eye Hospital by Prime Minister Shri Pundit Nehru. 1966 Opening of Dr. Vikram Sarabhai Community Centre. 1967 Opening of Sola Bhagvat Vidhyapith. 1969 Nationalization of Banks. 1973 Opening of Shubhash Bridge. Heavy flood. 1974 Nav Nirman Aandolan by students. 1975 Declaration of Emergency in the Country. 1978 Opening of Consumer Education Research Centre. 1980 Kotarpur Water Works project has been started with the help of LIC. 1983 All India Mayor's Conference by the Municipal Corporation Ahmedabad. 1985 Anti-Reservation movement. 1986 92 sq. kms of new area merged with Municipal Corporation on Eastern Periphery. 1988 Drainage Project and Urban Project has been started for new area with the help of World Bank. 1993 Municipal Corporation Superseded for the implementation of 74th Amendment and Administrator appointed. 1994 Several administrative reforms and strict actions initiated by the Corporation to improve its financial position. In-house Computerization Started. 1995 Municipal Corporation transform itself to a surplus generating body and taken up several project works. 1997 Municipal Corporation got itself credit rated from CRISIL and got A+ rating which subsequently increase to AA (so) rating 1998 Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation becomes first corporation in the country to offer public bonds for Public Subscription of Rs.1000 million. 1999 1) Widening of Sardar Bridge. 2) Renovation of Tagore Hall. 3) Renovation of Town Hall. 2000 1) Widening of Gandhi Bridge. 2) Widening of Ellis Bridge. 3) Publication of Citizen's Charter for the first time. 4) Inauguration of the ambitious Raska Water Project.

The city of Ahmedabad is endowed with a rich architectural heritage that is vital to the local identity and continuity of the place. The foremost heritage assets are the Indo-Islamic monuments of the 15th to 17th centuries: the Jama Masjid, the Teen Darwaza, the Bhadra Gate and Tower and the Tombs of Queen and King located in the historic core, the remaining sections of the original fort wall, 12 original gates and a number of other monuments protected by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). Besides these monuments, there are potential heritage precincts in the form of the Pols, the traditional residential clusters of the medieval period, which makes Ahmedabad exceptional. A large enclave of the Maratha period and many fine examples of colonial era architecture also survive in the Walled city.


Ahmedabad has a tropical monsoon climate, which is hot and dry, except in the rainy season. Summer days are very hot with mean maximum temperature of 41.3°C while, nights are pleasant with mean minimum temperature of 26.3°C. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures in winter are 30°C and 15.4°C respectively. The average annual rainfall of the area is 782mm, although there is a considerable variation from year to year. It occurs generally during the months of June to September. The average relative humidity is 60% with a maximum of 80% to 90% during the rainy season.


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